Test of Auditory Processing - 4th Edition (TAPS 4)


 A Language Processing Skills Assessment

Authors: Nancy Martin, PhD / Rick Brownell, MS / Patricia Hamaguchi, MA, CCC-SLP

  • Individual Administration
  • Ages 5 through 21
  • Norm Referenced
  • Testing Time: 60–90 Minutes
  • Qualification Level B


The TAPS-4 provides information about language processing and comprehension skills across three intersecting areas: phonological processing, auditory memory and listening comprehension. These areas underpin the development of effective listening and communication skills, and are critical to the development of higher order language skills, including literacy skills.

The TAPS-4 features new subtests along with revisions to subtests from the TAPS-3, fully updated norms, and an expanded age range. The TAPS-4 subtests were also reorganized into Index and Supplemental subtests, reducing testing burden and increasing flexibility in administration.

The TAPS-4 also features audio administration for the subtests in which proper pronunciation of speech sounds is critical, providing a greater degree of standardization and accuracy during the testing process.

The TAPS-4 has 11 subtests, organized into three indices:

Phonological Processing Index:

  • Word (Pair) Discrimination: Assesses an individual's ability to discriminate whether a given word pair is the same or different
  • Phonological Deletion: Assesses an individual's ability to manipulate phonemes within words
  • Phonological Blending: Assesses an individual's ability to synthesize a word given the individual phonemes
  • Syllabic Blending (Supplemental): Assesses an individual's ability to synthesize a nonsense word given the individual syllables

Auditory Memory Index:

  • Number Memory Forward: Assesses an individual's ability to recall an auditory sequence of numbers in the given order
  • Word Memory: Assesses an individual's ability to recall an auditory sequence of words in the given order
  • Sentence Memory: Assesses an individual's ability to recall a spoken sentence
  • Number Memory Reversed (Supplemental): Assesses an individual's ability to recall an auditory sequence of numbers in the reverse order

Listening Comprehension Index:

  • Processing Oral Directions (without background noise):Assesses an individual's ability to process and recall oral directions when presented in quiet listening conditions
  • Auditory Comprehension:Assesses an individual's ability to comprehend oral language at the sentence and narrative level, including literal recall, inference, and higher order language tasks such as idioms and figurative language
  • Auditory Figure-Ground (Processing Oral Directions with background noise) (Supplemental):Assesses an individual's ability to process and recall oral directions when presented with competing background noise

The TAPS-4 assesses five narrow abilities across three broad skill areas as defined in the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities:

Short-Term Memory

  • Memory Span (MS)
  • Working Memory Capacity (MW)

Auditory Processing

  • Phonetic Coding (PC)
  • Resistance to Auditory Stimulus Distortion (UR)

Comprehension Knowledge

  • Listening Ability (LS)

Administration and Scoring

TAPS-4 Index subtests can be administered in one hour or less. Scaled scores are provided for subtests; standard scores are provided for indices and the overall score. Discrepancy scores allow comparison of performance across subtests.



This test is normed for college grade levels or for examinees over 18 years of age who have completed high school but without college education. The importance of education has been widely disseminated throughout the United States. Adult schools and literacy programs are found in most communities. Because of the high prevalence of dyslexia, even in the adult population, it is necessary to determine the presence and severity of specific eidetic and phonetic coding problems in dyslexic adults. The ADT is the first test, and only one of its kind, to fill this need and allow for recommendations for specialized educational therapy in literacy, occupational therapy, and counseling programs, based on ADT results. The ADT comes with complete instructions, stimulus decoding pages, and recording sheets for decoding and encoding results, allowing for determination of dyslexic types and degrees of severity.



This screener is normed for grades 2 through 8. With prevalence of dyslexia ranging from 10% to 20% in elementary and middle schools, it is imperative to detect it and make appropriate referrals for further testing and diagnostic evaluation of dyslexia. TDS screening has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting dyseidetic (visual) and dysphonetic (auditory) types of dyslexia. It is an important tool for professionals on the multidisciplinary team involved in helping individuals with reading problems. These may include teachers, resource educational specialists, school psychologists, speech-language specialists, pediatricians, optometrists, ophthalmologists, occupational therapists, school nurses, and other professionals. They particularly need a dyslexia screening procedure when parents present their children with the complaint that: “My child is having trouble reading.”



A practical, easy-to-learn, direct screening method for dyslexia. This screener is normed for children in the first grade although it can be used in cases of low achieving students in the second grade or high achievers in kindergarten. Because deficits in decoding and encoding the written language are hallmarks of dyslexia, the use of phonetically regular and irregular words in the systematic manner of the DSF allows for detecting dyseidetic (visual), dysphonetic (auditory), and dysphoneidesia (auditory and visual) types of dyslexia. The DSF comes with instructions, decoding stimulus pages, and recoding forms for decoding and encoding of words.


Motor-Free Visual Perceptual Test-4 (MVPT-4)
 NEW! An updated and streamlined version of the classic visual-perception test!
Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-4
Ronald P. Colarusso, EdD/ Donald D. Hammill, EdD
The MVPT-4 is the most recent revision of the only non-motor visual perceptual assessment that can be
used throughout the lifespan. The MVPT-4 provides a quick, reliable, and valid measure of overall visual
perceptual ability in children and adults. The MVPT-4 includes 45 items from the MVPT-3 which have
been reorganized and grouped for easier administration.
Stimuli are comprised of black-and-white line drawings and designs, with answer choices presented in
an easy to record multiple-choice format. No motor involvement is needed to make a response, making
the test particularly useful with those who may have motor disabilities. The MVPT-4 is one of the most
widely used visual perceptual assessment for recertifying adult drivers after head injury or stroke.
The MVPT-4 is designed to be used for screening and research purposes by psychologists, occupational
therapists, educational specialists, optometrists, and others who may need to determine a person’s
overall ability to discern and understand visual stimuli.
Visual Perceptual Abilities Assessed
The following tasks are assessed:
  • Visual Discrimination - the ability to discriminate dominant features of different objects, including the ability to discriminate position, shapes, and forms.
  • Spatial Relationships - the ability to perceive the positions of objects in relation to oneself and to other objects. Items assess the perception of pictures, figures, or patterns that are disoriented in relation to each other, such as figure reversals and rotations.
  • Visual Memory – the ability to recognize a previously presented stimulus item after a brief interval.
  • Figure-Ground – the ability to distinguish an object from background or surrounding objects.
  • Visual Closure – the ability to perceive a whole figure when only fragments are presented.
The MVPT-4 includes new norms for ages 4-0 through 80-0+ years. Data was collected from 2012-2014 
on a national, stratified sample of more than 2700 individuals. Results of reliability and validity studies 
are provided, as well as performance comparisons with clinical populations. 
Administration and Scoring
The MVPT-4 takes approximately 20-25 minutes to administer. Test plates are contained in one easy-to 
use book with an easel back. Test administration cues are provided in the test plates to facilitate
administration. Scoring is extremely easy; no basals or ceilings are needed. The raw score is quickly 
converted to ONE overall standard score and percentile rank. 
Test Kit  Includes:
Manual, Test Plates and Recording Forms (25), in portfolio



Designed by Drs. G.N. Getman, Chris Henderson and Steven Marcus.

Visual Recall is a memory skill and one of the processes of visualization. As a memory for designs test, the Visual Recall Test is a significant probe of visual behavior and was designed so that patients of all ages, with wide ranges of visual abilities, could be evaluated.

Consists of 9 Visual Recall test cards increasing in complexity from one simple design on card 1 to three more complex designs on card 9. Administration instructions and scoring information card included.



■ Visual-Motor Skills
■ Individual or Group Administration
■ Ages 3-0 through 90+
■ Nationally Norm-Referenced on 2610 Individuals

This brand-new revision of the TVMS assesses how well a person can coordinate visually guided fine-motor movements to copy a design while it is in sight. The TVMS-3 is used to determine whether there are any systematic distortions or gross inaccuracies in the copied design that could be the result of deficits in visual perception, motor planning, and/or execution.

The TVMS-3 utilizes a greatly simplified scoring system (NO ruler or protractor needed!). A single test now replaces the two levels of the previous version (TVMS-R and TVMS-UL), making it both easier to administer and more economical. This version also eliminates the need for the alternate quick-scoring method that was previously offered for the TVMS-R.

Administration and Scoring
The TVMS-3 is untimed; it can be administered completely in about 30-45 minutes. The test-taker is given a booklet containing a series of 39 geometric designs of increasing complexity. The individual is asked to reproduce each design as closely as possible but may not sketch or trace the designs, nor attempt more than one copy for each design.

Results are expressed as a general accuracy standard score and an analysis of errors seen in the copied design. The manual contains detailed descriptions and exemplars of actual test results obtained during the norming study, showing the error types and scoring guidelines. The scoring sheet has a built-in guide to the types of errors possible on each design.

Identifies nine types of errors: Incorrect Closures; Incorrect Angles; Line Quality; Line Lengths; Line Connections; Modification of Size or Part; Addition or Deletion of a Part; Rotation or Reversal; Shape Overlap Error

Analysis of the types of errors made provides a detailed evaluation of visual-motor skills. Results can be reported as standard scores, percentile ranks, or age equivalents. When used along with a test of visual perception, the tests can differentiate between a primarily visual-motor impairment and a perceptual difficulty.

Complete Test Kit includes: Manual, 15 Test Booklets, and 15 Record Forms



By Michael Wesson, OD

A breakthrough in vision science technology, the Psychometric Acuity Cards provide a high test/re-test reliability to provide excellent progress checks for amblyopia therapy. Based on the Flom cards, as modified by Davidson, these cards use tumbling "E's" arranged in a square. Complete system includes 9 double-sided, laminated cards (total of 18 charts) that represent 18 levels of Snellen acuity. Cards provide spacing between optotypes in the same ratio for all acuity levels. Complete instruction manual included.br>