Primary Mental Abilities - Complete set


The Perceptual Speed Subtest is a paper and pencil test that requires the patient to rapidly perceive subtle differences in similar forms. There are four sample items and 50 test items for the 2-4 level where the patient is required to mark two of four figures in a row that are exactly alike. In the 4-6 version, the patient must find two to four figures that are alike and use a separate answer sheet. There are four sample items and 40 test items. Both tests have a five minute time limit. The Spatial Relations Subtest is also a paper and pencil test that requires the patient to visually manipulate parts of a square. The patient is shown an incomplete "square" and must determine which of four possible responses will complete the square. The correct answer may or may not be in proper spatial orientation, so the patient must mentally rotate the parts. The 2-4 grade level version is contained in a booklet and there are four samples and 27 test items. The 4-6 grade level version has a separate answer sheet and has four sample items and 25 test items. There is a six minute time limit for each test. The test kit includes: 1 manual; 25 Perceptual Speed Tests, grades 2-4; 10 Perceptual Speed Tests, grades 4-6; 25 Spatial Relations Tests, grades 2-4; 10 Spatial Relations Tests, grades 4-6; 10 answer sheets, grades 4-6 (for both tests).

Reversals Frequency Test


By Richard Gardner, M.D

*Useful in diagnosis of children with learning disabilities.

*Objective assessment of letter and number reversal frequency.

*Helpful for differentiating between neurologically based and psychogenic learning disabilities.

*Standardized on both normal and learning-disabled children.

Children who have reached the third grade and above, who still exhibit reversals, are considered suspect for the presence of a neurologically-based learning disability, especially dyslexia. However, there are children above the second grade, with no evidence of a learning disability, who still exhibit reversals. At what age and academic level is the presence of reversals pathological and what reversals frequency would warrant such a conclusion? In an attempt to answer such questions and objectify reversals assessment, Dr. Gardner has devised and standardized three tests of reversals frequency. On the Reversals Execution subtest, the child is asked to write a specific list of numbers and letters. On the Reversals Recognition subtest, the child is presented with an array of numbers and letters, some of which are presented as mirror images. The child is asked to place a cross over all incorrectly oriented items. In the Reversals Matching subtest, each item consists of a model number or letter followed by four samples of the same letter or number. One of the four samples is correctly oriented like the model, the other three are inverted and/or rotated. The child is asked to circle the one that matches the model. Each subtest is scored separately because each provides different kinds of information related to reversals errors. Mean, ranges, standard deviations and percentile ranks are provided for both normal children and those known to have neurologically based learning disabilities.

Includes instruction manual and pads of 50 forms for each of the three subtests.

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Wold Sentence Copying Test


Used to determine if a child has the ability to rapidly and accurately copy a sentence from top to bottom of page. Pad of 50 forms. Includes instruction sheet and "The Wold Sentence Copy Test & Academic Performance" by W.C. Maples, article reprint with updated norms from the Journal of Behavioral Optometry.


Wold Sentence Copy Test – Disclaimer

The Wold Sentence Copy Test (WSCT) was developed by Dr. Robert Wold to supplement optometric evaluations by providing an opportunity to observe behaviors related to copying text.

The grade equivalent scores provided with the test have never been validated, standardized, or found to be reliable by any normative studies and may significantly overestimate a child’s grade equivalent ability on copying text.  The scores do not reflect handwriting legibility.

For these reasons the WSCT should not be used to determine student eligibility for any special education or related services, removal of eligibility for services, nor for altering or discontinuing the services a student receives.

The (WSCT) can be used only as a general benchmark of progress within a broader program of treatment, which should use more comprehensive goals.

The Optometric Extension Program Foundation and any of its representatives are not responsible for the improper use of this test by any organization or individual.

Adopted 4/30/2015 by the OEP Board of Directors

V.O. Star Test Pattern


V.O. Stars are invaluable for demonstrating patients' visual posture and changes made due to 1) lens prescriptions or 2) as a result of vision therapy. Pads of 50.

Cheiroscopic Tracings - Test Pattern


Cheiroscopic tracings have been a mainstay of anti-suppression training from the beginning of optometric vision therapy. Suppression control is enhanced by using brightly colored pencils for tracing and by using a "rubbing" motion like that used when erasing. The patient puts a slash line at the location where the suppression has occurred. Pad of 50 forms.